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Micmac (Mi'kmaq)

The Micmac were the major native group occupying the Maritimes at the time of European contact. They were part of the Algonquian language group (the two main language groups of the Northeastern indigenous peoples were the Algonquian and the Iroquoian), although they had their own distinctive dialect. Micmac territoryClose neighbours of the Micmac were the Malecite (also spelled Maliseet). They lived mostly in the western part of what is now New Brunswick. While the Micmac were coastal people, the Malecite depended more on inland resources and even cultivated corn. We know less about the Malecite because the early European settlers and explorers had little contact with them.

FOOD AND ECONOMY

Hunting and fishing were the main activities of the Micmac. In winter they would camp in smaller family groups and hunt for deer, elk, seal, beaver, otter, moose, bear and caribou. In the spring and summer they joined with other families to form larger camps. They gathered and boiled maple tree sap in the spring and did a little farming in the summer, but their main food source at this time of year was fish - smelts, herring, sturgeon, salmon, cod and eels.

DWELLINGS

The Micmac built birchbark-covered wigwams which were light and easy to roll up and carry to a new location. Sometimes wigwams were round with a single fire in the middle. These accommodated 10 to 12 people. Larger wigwams were long with a fire at each end and room for 20 to 24 people.

TRANSPORTATION

The Micmac had birchbark canoes that could hold five or six people. In the 17th century they added sails to these canoes. In winter they travelled through the snow with the aid of snowshoes, sleds and toboggans. In fact, our word "toboggan" comes from the Micmac "taba'gan."

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

The Micmac had no central governing authority like the Iroquois. There were seven traditional political districts, each headed by its own chief or sagamore. A Grand Chief located in the head district of Cape Breton Island hosted periodic council meetings attended by the band chiefs. The Micmac were also part of the Wabenaki Confederacy, a loose alliance of several native groups from the northeastern region who met once every few years, sometimes as far away as present-day Boston.

CLOTHING & UTENSILS

Typical Micmac hatMen wore loincloths in the summer and fur robes with leggings and moccasins in winter. Women wore similar robes or long tunics made from skins which were decorated with paint and porcupine quills. In the 18th century they began to wear pointed hats. Most of their domestic tools were made from lightweight birchbark, often elaborately decorated with porcupine quills. These quilled boxes and baskets are quite distinctive to the Micmac and Malecite.

RELIGION & FESTIVALS

The Micmacs shared with other Algonquian tribes a belief in a supreme being. There were also a number of lesser gods, some in human form. One of the best
known is Glooscap who was more of a cultural hero than a god, a human-like being with superhuman abilities. Shamans shaman: a medicine man in North American native culture. Someone with special spiritual gifts and the ability to heal. could intercede between gods and humans to cure the sick, predict the future, or help in warfare or the hunt. The Micmac held big feasts to celebrate marriages, funerals, and the beginning of the hunting season. Elders would give speeches that told family stories and kept their history alive. The Micmac chief, Membertou, converted to Catholicism in 1610 and the Micmac remained among the most firmly converted of the native peoples.

EUROPEAN CONTACT

European contact changed the economy of the Micmac, bringing them European goods like knives and different foods, most of which were not as healthy for them as their traditional diet. A lot of native people were killed off by European diseases like smallpox. Micmacs helped the Acadians settle in to their new life. They shared their hunting and fishing techniques with them, told them where to find local resources, showed them how to make clothes and canoes and how to insulate their houses against the winter. The Acadians had fairly good relations with the Micmac, but they participated, along with the English, when Governor Cornwallis offered a bounty for the dead body of any Micmac man, woman or child.

Further Reference